May 20, 2014

Copying Files

^ Ad space to help offset hosting costs :D

After an awesome (but tiring!) week at Laracon NYC, I have a simpler (but useful!) edition Servers for Hackers to share. During Laracon, many people expressed gratitude for SFH and Vaprobash. Thank you so much!

Special thanks to @jordonbrill who gave me this topic idea during the after-party.

So, there's quite a few ways of copying files using the command line. Of course we can copy files inside of our own computer, but often we need to copy files across servers! There's a few strategies for doing so, which we'll cover here in a little more detail.

Copying Files Locally

I suspect this is a boring part of the newsletter - I'll cover it quickly. We can use the cp command:

Copy a file:

$ cp /path/to/source/file.ext /path/to/destination/

# Or rename it
$ cp /path/to/source/file.ext /path/to/destination/new-filename.ext

To copy a directory, we copy recursively with the -r flag:

$ cp -r /path/to/source/dir /path/to/destination
# Result: /path/to/destination/dir exists!

SCP: Secure Copy

Secure Copy is just like the cp command, but secure. More importantly, it has the ability to send files to remote servers via SSH!

Copy a file to a remote server:

# Copy a file:
$ scp /path/to/source/file.ext username@hostname.com:/path/to/destination/file.ext

# Copy a directory:
$ scp -r /path/to/source/dir username@server-host.com:/path/to/destination

This will attempt to connect to hostname.com as user username. It will ask you for a password if there's no SSH key setup (or if you don't have a password-less SSH key setup between the two computers). If the connection is authenticated, the file will be copied to the remote server.

Since this works just like SSH (using SSH, in fact), we can add flags normally used with the SSH command as well. For example, you can add the -v and/or -vvv to get various levels of verbosity in output about the connection attempt and file transfer.

You can also use the -i (identity file) flag to specify an SSH identity file to use:

$ scp -i ~/.ssh/some_identity.pem /path/to/source/file.ext username@hostname:/path/to/destination/file.ext

Here are some other useful flags:

  • -p (lowercase) - Preserves modification times, access times, and modes from the original file
  • -P - Choose an alternate port
  • -c (lowercase) - Choose another cypher other than the default AES-128 for encryption
  • -C - Compress files before copying, for faster upload speeds (already compressed files are not compressed further)
  • -l - Limit bandwidth used in kiltobits per second (8 bits to a byte!).
    • e.g. Limit to 50 KB/s: scp -l 400 ~/file.ext user@host.com:~/file.ext
  • -q - Quiet output

Rsync: Sync Files Across Hosts

Rsync is another secure way to transfer files. Rsync has the ability to detect file differences, giving it the opportunity to save bandwidth and time when transfering files.

Just like scp, rsync can use SSH to connect to remote hosts and send/receive files from them. The same (mostly) rules and SSH-related flags apply for rsync as well.

Copy files to a remote server:

# Copy a file
$ rsync /path/to/source/file.ext username@hostname.com:/path/to/destination/file.ext

# Copy a directory:
$ rsync -r /path/to/source/dir username@hostname.com:/path/to/destination/dir

To use a specific SSH identity file and/or SSH port, we need to do a little more work. We'll use the -e flag, which lets us choose/modify the remote shell program used to send files.

# Send files over SSH on port 8888 using a specific identity file:
$ rsync -e 'ssh -p 8888 -i /home/username/.ssh/some_identity.pem' /source/file.ext username@hostname:/destination/file.ext

Here are some other common flags to use:

  • -v - Verbose output
  • -z - Compress files
  • -c - Compare files based on checksum instead of mod-time (create/modified timestamp) and size
  • -r - Recursive
  • -S - Handle sparse files efficiently
  • Symlinks:
    • -l - Copy symlinks as symlinks
    • -L - Transform symlink into referent file/dir (copy the actual file)
  • -p - Preserve permissions
  • -h - Output numbers in a human-readable format
  • --exclude="" - Files to exclude
    • e.g. Exclude the .git directory: --exclude=".git"

There are many other options as well - you can do a LOT with rsync!

Do a Dry-Run:

I often do a dry-run of rsync to preview what files will be copied over. This is useful for making sure your flags are correct and you won't overwrite files you don't wish to:

For this, we can use the -n or --dry-run flag:

# Copy the current directory
$ rsync -vzcrSLhp --dry-run ./ username@hostname.com:/var/www/some-site.com
#> building file list ... done
#> ... list of directories/files and some meta data here ...

Resume a Stalled Transfer:

Once in a while a large file transfer might stall or fail (while either using scp or rsync). We can actually use rsync to finish a file transfer!

For this, we can use the --partial flag, which tells rsync to not delete partially transferred files but keep them and attempt to finish its transfer on a next attempt:

$ rsync --partial --progress largefile.ext username@hostname:/path/to/largefile.ext

The Archive Option:

There's also a -a or --archive option, which is a handy shortcut for the options -rlptgoD:

  • -r - Copy recursively
  • -l - Copy symlinks as symlinks
  • -p - Preserve permissions
  • -t - Preserve modification times
  • -g - Preserve group
  • -o - Preserve owner (User needs to have permission to change owner)
  • -D - Preserve special/device files. Same as --devices --specials. (User needs permissions to do so)
# Copy using the archive option and print some stats
$ rsync -a --stats /source/dir/path username@hostname:/destination/dir/path

More Resources

All Topics